WE WORKED HARD FOR YOU THIS ELECTION SEASON. ProCon.org fights against media bias, political advertising, bureaucrats, and corporations that try to tell you what to think. This free website helps millions of people like you get reliable nonpartisan research to empower your own informed discussions and voting decisions. ProCon.org is a 501c3 nonprofit public charity that survives on your donations and needs your help. Please make a tax-deductible donation today to support free and unbiased education on vital public issues, including the 2016 presidential election. Thank you!!!
WE WORKED HARD FOR YOU THIS ELECTION SEASON. ProCon.org fights against media bias, political advertising, bureaucrats, and corporations that try to tell you what to think. This free website helps millions of people like you get reliable nonpartisan research to empower your own informed discussions and voting decisions. Now our nonprofit really needs your help. ProCon.org is a 501(c)(3) public charity that exists because of your contributions. Please make a tax-deductible donation today to support free and unbiased education on vital public issues, including the 2016 presidential election. Thank you SO MUCH for your support!!!!

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Kristin Marino, "Social Media: The New News Source," www.schools.com, Apr. 16, 2012

  2. Sabrina Kidwali and Catherine Imperatore, "Social Media as an Advocacy Tool," Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, Sep. 2011

  3. John D. Sutter, "Theater Shooting Unfolds in Real Time on Social Media," www.cnn.com, July 20, 2012

  4. Trevor Hughes and Carolyn Pesce, "Motive Sought in Deadly Shooting Rampage at Colorado Theater," www.usatoday.com, July 21, 2012

  5. LexisNexis Risk Solutions, "Role of Social Media in Law Enforcement Significant and Growing," www.lexisnexis.com, July 18, 2012

  6. Dan Evon, "NYPD Adding Twitter Tracking Unit to Police Force," www.socialnewsdaily.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  7. Richard Dalke, "Social Media Case Study: The Stanley Cup Hockey Riots," www.freshnetworks.com, June 27, 2011
  8. Global Post, "Vancouver Riots: The Shame and the Blame Spread Online," www.globalpost.com, June 17, 2012

  9. National School Boards Association, "Creating and Connecting: Research and Guidelines on Online Social - and Educational - Networking," www.nsba.org, July 2007

  10. Sarah Kessler, "The Case for Social Media in Schools," www.mashable.com, Sep. 29, 2010

  11. Elizabeth Delmatoff, "How Social Media Transformed Our School Community," www.oregoned.org, Apr. 2010

  12. Brian Solis, "People Use Social Networks to Connect with Friends and Family, Sometimes Brands," www.briansolis.com, Sep. 13, 2011

  13. Megan Sponcil and Priscilla Gitimu, "Use of Social Media by College Students: Relationship to Communication and Self-concept," Journal of Technology Research, 2012

  14. Common Sense Media, "Social Media, Social Life: How Teens View Their Digital Lives," www.commonsensemedia.org, 2012

  15. Bianca Bosker, "Fortune 500 List Boasts More Female CEOs Than Ever Before," www.huffingtonpost.com, May 7, 2012

  16. Huffington Post, "Social Media by Gender: Women Dominate Pinterest, Twitter, Men Dominate Reddit, YouTube (Infographic)," www.huffingtonpost.com, June 21, 2012

  17. Laura Said-Moorhouse and Stina Backer, "Why Women in Business Are Flocking to Twitter Chat," www.cnn.com, Sep. 27, 2012

  18. One.org, "Helping African Women Business Leaders Connect with Social Media," www.one.org (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  19. Jobvite, "The Essential Guide to Developing a Social Recruiting Strategy," www.jobvite.com, Mar. 3, 2012

  20. HR Focus, "Certain Tools Are Helping HR Connect Swiftly with the Right Job Candidates," www.ivyexec.com, Sep. 1, 2012

  21. Jobvite, "2012 Social Job Seeker Survey," www.jobvite.com, 2012

  22. Sharon Jayson, "'Flocking' Behavior Lands on Social Networking Sites," USA TODAY, Sep. 27, 2009

  23. Morgan, "5 Ways Social Media Can Facilitate Offline Networking," www.sociableboost.com, May 8, 2012

  24. Annalisa Rodriguez, "Social Media Doesn't Mean Social Isolation," www.usatodayeducate.com, Oct. 16, 2012

  25. Robert M. Bond, Christopher J. Farris, Jason J. Jones, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow, Jaime E. Settle, and James H. Fowler, "A 61-million-person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization," Nature, Sep. 13, 2012

  26. Keith Hampton, Lauren Sessions Goulet, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell, "Social Networking Sites and Our Lives," www.pewinternet.org, June 16, 2011

  27. Lee Rainie, "Social Media and Voting," Pew Internet, www.pewinternet.org, Nov. 6, 2012

  28. Xiaolin Zhou, Barry Wellman, and Justine Yu, "Egypt: The First Internet Revolt?," Peace Magazine, July-Sep. 2011

  29. Stuart Schaar, "Revolutionary Challenges in Tunisia and Egypt: Generations in Conflict," New Politics, Summer 2011

  30. Todd Wasserman, "The Architect of #OccupyWallStreet Praises the Power of 'Magical Hashtags,'" www.mashable.com, Oct. 27, 2011

  31. Andy Nathan, "How Social Media Saved the Economy," www.technorati.com, June 14, 2011

  32. Quentin Hardy, "McKinsey Says Social Media Could Add $1.3 Million to the Economy," www.bits.blogs.nytimes.com, July 25, 2012

  33. Chris Crum, "Facebook Now Has 1.01 Billion Active Users, Brought in $1.26 Billion in Q3 Revenue," www.webpronews.com, Oct. 24, 2012

  34. New York Times, "Twitter," www.topics.nytimes.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  35. Raquel Recuero, "Facebook, Public Education and Equity: A 13-year-old Fights for a 'Better School,'" www.dmlcentral.net, Oct. 8, 2012

  36. Rheana Murray, "Families Find Photos Lost During Sandy," www.nydailynews.com, Nov. 27, 2012
  37. Peter Jordan, "We Are All Daniel Cui," www.facebookstories.com, Oct. 1, 2012

  38. Sarah Medina, "Daniel Cui, High School Goalie, Gets Support of Peers After Mean Prank (Video)," www.huffingtonpost.com, Oct. 3, 2012

  39. University of Alabama at Birmingham, "Move Over Youngsters, Grandma’s on Facebook," www.newswise.com, Oct. 27, 2011

  40. Aylin Zafar, "Facebook for Centenarians: Senior Citizens Learn Social Media," www.theatlantic.com, Aug. 31, 2011

  41. Kathryn Zickuhr, "Generations 2010," www.pewinternet.org, Dec. 16, 2010

  42. Anxiety UK, "Anxiety UK Study Finds Technology Can Increase Anxiety," www.anxietyuk.org.uk, July 9, 2012

  43. Mary Wilks, "Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development," www.eckerd.edu (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  44. Jewish Action, "The Social Media Revolution: What Does It Mean for Our Children?," www.ou.org, Aug. 24, 2012

  45. Levi R. Baker and Debra L. Oswald, "Shyness and Online Social Networking Services," Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Nov. 2010

  46. D. D. Luxton, J. D. June, and J. M. Fairall, "Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective," American Journal of Public Health, May 2012

  47. World Health Organization, "Mixed Uptake of Social Media Among Public Health Specialists," www.who.int, Nov. 2011

  48. Charlotte Tucker, "Social Media, Texting Play New Role in Response to Disasters: Preparedness, Communication Targeted," thenationshealth.aphapublications.org, May – June 2011

  49. 5 Boroughs Partnership, "Stamp Out Stigma," 5boroughspartnership.nhs.uk (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  50. The Stigma Project, "Our Mission & Vision," www.thestigmaproject.org (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  51. The Economist, "Economist Debates: Social Networking," www.economist.com, Feb. 13, 2012

  52. Wipe Out Homophobia, www.facebook.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  53. Jenny Lawson, The Bloggess, www.thebloggess.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  54. Ginny Graves, "Miracle on Facebook," Good Housekeeping, July 2012

  55. Planet Hunters, "PH1: A Planet in a Four-star System," www.blog.planethunters.org, Oct. 15, 2012

  56. Anick Jesdanun, "The Best Crowdfunding Site for Hurricane Sandy Relief," www.huffingtonpost.com, Nov. 12, 2012

  57. Crowdwise, "About Us," www.crowdwise.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  58. Pencils of Promise, "Our Approach," www.pencilsofpromise.org (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  59. Bigger Brains, "Get Noticed. Disseminate Your Research Better," www.biggerbrains.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  60. Intuit Websites, "How Small Businesses Are Using Social Media," s1.intuitstatic.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  61. Tim Mullaney, "Social Media Is Reinventing How Business Is Done," www.usatoday.com, May 6, 2012

  62. Harry Rollason, "Why Social Media Makes Customer Service Better," www.mashable.com, Sep. 29, 2012

  63. Meris Stansbury, "Ten Ways Schools Are Using Social Media Effectively," www.eschoolnews.com, Oct. 21, 2011

  64. OnlineUniversities.com, "Pros and Cons of Social Media in Education," www.socialtimes.com, 2012

  65. National School Boards Association, "Creating and Connecting: Research and Guidelines on Online Social - and Educational - Networking," www.nsba.org, July 2007

  66. Mark Blankenship, "How Social Media Can and Should Impact Higher Education," Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, Mar. 2011

  67. Diane Cordell, "Skype and the Embedded Librarian," Library Technology Reports, Feb. 2012

  68. Tim Childers, "From Social Networking to Academic Networking… A Paradigm Shift," [email protected], May-June 2011

  69. Edmodo, "About Edmodo," Edmodo.com (accessed Mar. 24, 2015)

  70. Greg Rollett, "How Musicians Are Using Social Media to Connect with Fans," www.mashable.com, Mar. 12, 2010

  71. Ben Sisario, "Digital Notes: 50,000 Are Owed Royalties, Agency Says," www.mediacoder.blogs.nytimes.com, Aug. 15, 2012

  72. Ben Sisario, "The New Rise of a Summer Hit: Tweet It Maybe" www.nytimes.com, Aug. 21, 2012

  73. Desiree Adib, "Pop Star Justin Bieber Is on the Brink of Superstardom" www.abcnews.go.com, Nov. 14, 2009

  74. Zack O’Malley Greenburg, "Justin Bieber, Venture Capitalist," Forbes Asia Magazine, June 4, 2012

  75. National Endowment for the Arts, "NEA Chairman Rocco Landesman Announces New Report on How Americans Use Electronic Media to Participate in the Arts," www.nea.gov, June 25, 2010

  76. Kaplan Test Prep, "Kaplan Test Prep Survey: Percentage of College Admissions Officers Who Visit Applicants' Social Networking Pages Continues to Grow — But Most Students Shrug," press.kaptest.com, Nov. 20, 2014

  77. Dana Flavelle, "Worries Follow Rise of Facebook," www.thestar.com, May 4, 2007

  78. Tabitha Whissemore, "Students Connect Through Social Media Project" www.communitycollegetimes.com, Nov. 28, 2011

  79. Olga R. Rodriguez, "Mexico Tweets Cause Massive Shootout Panic," www.huffingtonpost.com, Sep. 8, 2012

  80. Sam Laird, "Twitter Troll Who Posted Fake Sandy News Apologizes to Internet," www.mashable.com, Oct. 30, 2012

  81. ConsumerReports.org, "Facebook & Your Privacy: Who Sees the Data You Share on the Biggest Social Network," Consumer Reports, June 2012

  82. Declan McCullagh, "Feds Snoop on Social-network Accounts Without Warrants," www.news.cnet.com, Sep. 27, 2012

  83. Sheryl Nance-Nash, "What Insurers Could Do with Your 'Social Media Score,'" www.dailyfinance.com, Dec. 12, 2011

  84. Paul A. Kirschner and Aryn C. Karpinski, "Facebook and Academic Performance," Computers in Human Behavior, Nov. 2010

  85. Jimmy Daly, "How Is Facebook Affecting College Students’ Grades [Infographic]," www.edtechmagazine.com, July 2, 2012

  86. Leslie Lanir, "Digital Information Overwhelms and Distracts Students," www.decodedscience.com, Nov. 4, 2012

  87. David Gutierrez, "Facebook Is Making You Miserable, Scientists Find," www.naturalnews.com, Nov. 29, 2012

  88. Lee Rainie, Amanda Lenhart, and Aaron Smith, "The Tone of Life on Social Networking Sites," www.pewinternet.org, Feb. 9, 2012

  89. Victoria J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, and Donald F. Roberts, "Generation M2L Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds," www.kff.org, Jan. 2010

  90. Mark Dolliver, "Social Networking: A Waste of Time?," www.adweek.com, Oct. 7, 2010

  91. Urs Gasser and John Palfrey, "Mastering Multitasking," Educational Leadership, Mar. 2009

  92. David P. Willis, "Social Media Games Have Become Big Business," www.usatoday.com, Feb. 24, 2012

  93. Chris Cuomo, "Rep. Anthony Weiner: ‘The Picture Was of Me and I Sent It,'" www.abcnews.go.com, June 6, 2011

  94. Raquel Recuero, "Social Media Discourse: Violence, Olympiads and Our Everyday Life," www.dmlcentral.net, Aug. 23, 2012

  95. K. Wolfling, M. E. Beutel, and K. W. Muller, "Construction of a Standardized Clinical Interview to Assess Internet Addiction: First Findings Regarding the Usefulness of AICA-C," Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 2012

  96. Tony Dokoupil, "Is the Onslaught Making Us Crazy?," Newsweek, July 16, 2012

  97. David Derbyshire, "Social Websites Harm Children's Brains: Chilling Warning to Parents from Top Neuroscientist," Daily Mail, Feb. 24, 2009

  98. USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future, "Special Report: America at the Digital Turning Point," www.annenberg.usc.edu, Jan, 2012

  99. Joann Pan, "Tweets at the Tables? More of Us Mix Social Media and Food," www.mashable.com, Feb. 29, 2012

  100. Barb Dybwad, "10% of Under 25s Think It’s OK to Text During Sex," www.mashable.com, May 5, 2010

  101. Matt McKinney, "Gangs Sometimes Fire First Shots Online," www.startribune.com, July 14, 2012

  102. Javelin Strategy & Research, "2012 Identity Fraud Industry Report: Social Media and Mobile Forming the New Fraud Frontier," www.javelinstrategy.com, 2012

  103. Alexandra Topping, "Social Networking Sites Fuelling Stalking, Report Warns," www.guardian.co.uk, Feb. 1, 2012

  104. US Army, "Social Media Roundup: Dangers of Location-Based Social Networking and Geotagging," www.slideshare.net, Feb. 22, 2012

  105. Daniel Hernandez, "Mexico: Decapitated Woman Mourned by Social Media Website," www.latimes.com, Sep. 25, 2011

  106. ValleyCentral.com, "Fourth Social Media Murder Reported in Nuevo Laredo," www.valleycentral.com, Nov. 10, 2011

  107. Nucleus Research, "Facebook: Measuring the Cost to Business of Social Networking," nucleusresearch.com, July 2009

  108. GFI Software, "Social Networking at Work: Thanks, but No Thanks?," www.gfi.com, June 3, 2011

  109. David Schepp, "Employees Admit Social Media Is a Waste of Their Time [Infographic]," www.jobs.aol.com, June 13, 2012

  110. F. Mishna, C. Cook, T. Gadalla, J. Daciuk, and S. Solomon, "Cyber Bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July 2010

  111. Kathryn Anderson, "Workplace Aggression and Violence: Nurses and Midwives Say No," Australian Nursing Journal, July 2011

  112. Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, and Kimberly J. Mitchell, "How Often Are Teens Arrested for Sexting? Data from a National Sample of Police Cases," Pediatrics, Jan. 2012

  113. Nancy V. Gifford, "Sexting in the USA," www.fosi.org (accessed Dec. 6, 2012)

  114. Ben Weitsenkorn, "Private Porn Pics Aren’t Private for Long," www.nbcnews.com, Oct. 2012

  115. Stephen Marche, "Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?," Atlantic Monthly, May 2012

  116. National Research Corporation, "1 in 5 Americans Use Social Media for Health Care Information," www.hcmg.nationalresearch.com, Feb. 28, 2011

  117. Megan Garber, "Health Blogger Could be Jailed for Giving Health Advice While Unlicensed," www.theatlantic.com, Apr. 24, 2012

  118. Jeffrey Benabio, "Why Twitter Is Bad for Your Health," www.thedermblog.com, Apr. 6, 2010

  119. Mia Moody, "New Media-Same Stereotypes: An Analysis of Social Media Depictions of President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama," The Journal of New Media & Culture, Summer 2012

  120. Matthew Johnson, "Facing Online Hate: Preparing Youth to Deal with Hate on the Internet," www.medialiteracyweek.ca (accessed Dec. 6, 2012)

  121. Heidi Beirich and Laurie Wood, "Robert Killian’s Years of Posing as a Neo-Nazi Biker Cost Him Dearly," www.splcenter.org, Fall 2012

  122. Ryan Owens and Chris Murphey, "Growing Number of ‘Project X’ Party Copycats Lead to Arrests Nationwide" www.abcnews.go.com, Mar. 17, 2012

  123. NBC News, "Thousands Descend on Tiny Dutch Town after Facebook Invitation Goes Viral," www.worldnews.nbcnews.com, Sep. 22, 2012

  124. CBS Local, "USC Study Examines Whether Social Networking Exacerbates Risky Behavior Among Teens" www.losangeles.cbslocal.com, Apr. 2, 2012

  125. Howard Blume, "Students’ Online Photos of California Tests Delay Release of Scores," www.latimes.com, July 18, 2012

  126. Sal Bommarito, "New York City High School Cheating Scandal Sparks Fear That Facebook Can Be Used to Cheat," www.policymic.com, July 2012

  127. ExactTarget, "Digital Morning Report," www.exacttarget.com, 2010

  128. Jim Giles, "The Oracle of Facebook," New Scientist, Apr. 28, 2012

  129. Lindsey Stiner, "Is Social Media to Blame for Inappropriate Student-Teacher Relationships?," www.connectamarillo.com, Oct. 16, 2012

  130. Abbie Alford, "Social Media Fueling Teacher & Student Sexual Relationships," www.fox23.com, May 24, 2012

  131. I am Baker, "The Ugly Truth About Instagram," www.iambaker.net, June 26, 2012

  132. Angela West, "What You Should Know About Pinterest and Copyright," www.pcworld.com, Feb. 26, 2012

  133. Nancy Messieh, "How Not to Run an Instagram Account: Vogue Spain Caught Stealing from Well-Known Street Photographer," www.thenextweb.com, Apr. 22, 2012

  134. Michael J. Bugeja, "Facing the Facebook," www.chronicle.com, Jan. 23. 2006

  135. Janet Kornblum and Mary Beth Marklein, "What You Say Online Could Haunt You," www.usatoday.com, Mar. 8, 2006

  136. Matt Raymond, "How Tweet It Is!: Library Acquires Entire Twitter Archive," www.blogs.loc.gov, Apr. 14, 2010

  137. Shendl Tuchman, "Divorce and Social Networking Sites," www.goodtherapy.org, Aug. 27, 2012

  138. Rob Waugh, "Beware the New Computer Virus Spreading Via Chat Messaging Window on Facebook," www.dailymail.co.uk, May 21, 2012

  139. Kyle Christie, "Going Viral: Using Social Media to Publicise Academic Research" www.guardian.co.uk, Apr. 11, 2011

  140. Emily Johns, "Dangers Faced by Journalists Extend to Social Media Users," www.silha.umn.edu, Fall 2011

  141. Martha Payne, "Martha Payne: Diary of a Girl Who Fed the Starving," www.telegraph.co.uk, Oct. 4, 2012

  142. Aaron Smith, Laurie Segall, and Stacy Cowley, "Facebook Reaches One Billion Users," www.cnnmoney.com, Oct. 4, 2012

  143. Ashlee Vance, "Facebook: The Making of 1 Billion Users," www.businessweek.com, Oct. 4, 2012

  144. Semiocast, "Brazil Becomes 2nd Country on Twitter, Japan 3rd Netherlands Most Active Country," www.semiocast.com, Jan. 1, 2012

  145. Chenda Ngak, "Pinterest CEO Says Key to Success Was Marketing, Not Engineering," www.cbsnews.com, Oct. 22, 2012

  146. Sean Ludwig, "Pinterest Now the Third Most Popular Social Network After Facebook & Twitter," www.venturebeat.com, Apr. 5, 2012

  147. Nielsen Wire, "Social Media Report 2012: Social Media Comes of Age," www.blog.nielsen.com, Dec. 3, 2012

  148. Seer Interactive, "How Do They Make Money?" www.seerinteractive.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  149. Tineka Smith, "Social Media Revenue Predicted to Reach $16.9bn in 2012," www.cbronline.com, July 25, 2012

  150. Gartner, "Gartner Says Worldwide Social Media Revenue Forecast to Reach $16.9 Billion in 2012," www.gartner.com, July 25, 2012

  151. Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, "Internet’s Broader Role in Campaign 2008: Social Networking and Online Videos Take Off," www.people-press.org, Jan. 11, 2008

  152. Jeremiah Owyang, "Snapshot of Presidential Candidate Social Networking Stats: Nov 3, 2008," www.web-strategist.com, Nov. 3, 2008

  153. Vivek Kundra and Katie Stanton, "New Technologies and Participation," www.whitehouse.gov, June 12, 2009

  154. White House Office of the Press Secretary, "Weekly Address: President Obama Announces Steps to Reform Government and Promote Fiscal Discipline," www.whitehouse.gov, Apr. 25, 2009

  155. Audrey Hudson, "Exclusive: W.H. Collects Web Users’ Data Without Notice," www.washingtontimes.com, Sep. 16, 2009

  156. Liz Gannes, "Twitter CEO Dick Costolo: We’re Not a Media Company. We’re in the Media Business." www.allthingsd.com, Jan. 30, 2012

  157. Twitter Blog, "One Hundred Million Voices," www.blog.twitter.com, Sep. 8, 2011

  158. Barack Obama, "Four More Years" www.twitter.com, Nov. 6, 2012

  159. Shea Bennett, "Revealed: Twitter’s 10 Most Retweeted Tweets of All Time," www.mediabistro.com, Sep. 27, 2012

  160. Tim Lister, "Tunisian Protests Fueled by Social Media Networks," www.cnn.com, Jan. 12, 2011

  161. Garry Blight, Sheila Pulham, and Paul Torpey, "Arab Spring: An Interactive Timeline of Middle East Protests," www.guardian.co.uk, Jan. 5, 2012

  162. ENTRTNMNT, "Hillary Clinton Supports Twitter Use in Iran," www.youtube.com, June 18, 2009

  163. Michael Falcone, "In Iraq: To Twitter or Not to Twitter?," www.thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com, Feb. 9, 2009

  164. Aaron Gouveia, "Wasting Time at Work," www.salary.com (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  165. Illinois General Assembly, "HB1314," www.ilga.gov, Aug. 2009

  166. Internet Safety Technical Task Force, "Enhancing Child Safety & Online Technologies," www.cyber.law.harvard.edu, Dec. 31, 2008

  167. Martin O’Malley, "Chapter 233: Labor and Employment – User Name and Password Privacy Protection and Exclusions," www.mlis.state.md.us, May 2, 2012

  168. Illinois General Assembly, "Bill Status of HB3782," www.ilga.gov (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  169. Jerry Brown, "Today I Signed Two Bills to Prohibit Universities and Employers from Demanding Your Social Media Passwords," www.twitter.com, Sep. 27, 2012

  170. State of Delaware, "House Bill # 309 w/HA 1 + SA 2 + HA 2," www.legis.delaware.gov, July 20, 2012

  171. National Conference of State Legislatures, "Employer Access to Social Media Usernames and Passwords," www.ncsl.org (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)

  172. Metro, "Instagram Attracts More Mobile Visitors Than Twitter for First Time," www.metro.co.uk, Sep. 28, 2012

  173. Beth Snyder Bulik, "Apparently That Text Can't Wait -- Not Even During Sex: Report Reveals Surprising News About Social Media and Its Grip on Our Lives," www.adage.com, May 5, 2010

  174. Pew Research Center, "Social Networking Fact Sheet," pewinternet.org (accessed Mar. 24, 2015)

  175. Zephoria, "The Top 20 Valuable Facebook Statistics," zephoria.com, Feb. 2015

  176. Josh Constine, "Facebook's Growth Since IPO in 12 Big Numbers," techcrunch.com, May 17, 2013

  177. Maeve Duggan, Nicole B. Ellison, Cliff Lampe, Amanda Lenhart and Mary Madden, "Social Media Update 2014," pewinternet.org, Jan. 9, 2015

  178. Twitter, "About," twitter.com (accessed Mar. 24, 2015)

  179. Michael Arrington, "Facebook Just Launched Open Registrations," techcrunch.com, Sep. 26, 2006

  180. DJ Saul, "3 Million Teens Leave Facebook in 3 Years: The 2014 Facebook Demographic Report," istrategylabs.com, Jan. 15, 2014

  181. The Nielsen Company, "The Digital Consumer," Nielsen.com, Feb. 2014

  182. Reynol Junco, "Student Class Standing, Facebook Use, and Academic Performance," Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Jan. 2015

  183. Ruffalo Noel Levitz, "2014 E-Recruiting Practices Report for Four-Year and Two-Year Institutions," noellevitz.com, 2014

  184. Robert M. Pressman, Judith A. Owens, et al., "Examining the Interface of Family and Personal Traits, Media, and Academic Imperatives Using the Learning Habit Study," American Journal of Family Therapy, Sep. 2, 2014

  185. Reuters, "Maryland Students Accused of Using Twitter to Cheat on Test," reuters.com, Mar. 23, 2015

  186. Carol Robinson, "Student-teacher Sex: Are More Female Teachers Being Charged?," al.com, Mar. 4, 2014

  187. Associated Press, "Teacher-Student Sex Investigations Rising in Texas, 74 New Cases since Sept.," ksat.com, Mar. 16, 2015

  188. Merrill Hope, "41% Increase in Texas Teacher-Student Sexual Misconduct Cases," breitbart.com, Mar. 19, 2015

  189. Pew Research Center, "Social Networking Use," pewresearch.org (accessed May 24, 2016)


Steve Almasy, "Social Media an Inviting Target for Cybercriminals," www.cnn.com, Sep. 30, 2009

Danah M. Boyd and Nicole B. Ellison, "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Oct. 2007

Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) Council, "Facts and Statistics," www.cmocouncil.org (accessed Oct. 7, 2009)

CNN, "Facebook Nearly as Large as U.S. Population," www.cnn.com, Sep. 16, 2009

David Deal, "Think Social Influence Marketing and Innovation During the Recession," www.superhypeblog.com, Feb. 10, 2009

Benny Evangelista "Twitter Moving to Larger SoMa Office Space," San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 13, 2009

Facebook, "Statistics," www.facebook.com, (accessed Sep. 15, 2009)

Kelly Jackson Higgins, "Report: Social Networking Phishing Attacks Up More Than 240%," www.darkreading.com, June 29, 2009

Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin, Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying, 2009

Audrey Hudson, "EXCLUSIVE: W.H. Collects Web Users' Data without Notice," Washington Times, Sep. 16, 2009

Christopher Intagliata, "Even Poor Kids Are Social Network Savvy," podcast, Scientific American website, June 26, 2008

International Business Times, "'WhiteHouse 2.0' Embraces Social Networking," www.ibtimes.com, May 1, 2009

David Kelleher, "Social Networking at Work: Fear Not Facebook, MySpace and Bebo?," CIO.com, Feb. 17, 2009

Ronald J. Levine and Susan L. Swatski-Lebson, "Are Social Networking Sites Discoverable?," Law.com, Nov. 13, 2008

Marine Corps, "Immediate Ban of Internet Social Networking Sites (SNS) on Marine Corps Enterprise Network (MCEN) NIPRNET," www.marines.mil, Aug. 3, 2009

Mike McKee, "MySpace Musings Aren't Private, Appeals Court Rules," Law.com, Apr. 6, 2009

Lisa Mercer, "Who Uses Social Networking Sites," socialnetworking.lovetoknow.com, July 29, 2009

National Crime Prevention Council, "What Is Cyberbullying?," www.ncpc.org (accessed Oct. 5, 2009)

Nielsen Company, "Global Faces and Networked Places," nielsen.com, Mar. 2009

Nielsen Company, "News Release," nielsen.com, Sep. 24, 2009

Adam Ostrow, "People Spend 3x More Time on Facebook Than Google," www.mashable.com, Sep. 17, 2009

PEW Internet and American Life Project, "The Strength of Internet Ties," pewinternet.org, Jan. 25, 2006

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, "PEW Internet Project Data Memo," people-press.org, Jan. 14, 2009

Macon Phillips, "Change Has Come to WhiteHouse.gov," White House blog, Jan. 20, 2009

Nathan Olivarez-Giles, "More Sex Offenders Joined MySpace Than Previously Acknowledged," Los Angeles Times, Feb. 4, 2009

Noah Shachtman, "Marines Ban Twitter, Facebook, Other Sites," Wired, cnn.com, Aug. 4, 2009

Aric Sigman, "Well Connected?: The Biological Implications of 'Social Networking'," Biologist, Feb. 2009

State of Connecticut Attorney General's Office, "CT, NC Attorneys General Say MySpace Response to Subpoena Reveals 90,000 Registered Sex Offenders with Profiles," www.ct.gov, Feb. 3, 2009

Robin Wauters, "comScore: Russians Spend More Time on Social Networks Than the Rest of World," uk.techcruch.com, July 2, 2009

Andrew West, "Facebook Labelled a $5b Waste of Time," Sydney Morning Herald, Aug. 20, 2007

Zephoria, "Doing the Math on MySpace and Registered Sex Offenders," www.zephoria.org, Feb. 6, 2009