Last updated on: 6/3/2020 | Author:

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

        1. Kristin Marino, “Social Media: The New News Source,”, Apr. 16, 2012
        2. Sabrina Kidwali and Catherine Imperatore, “Social Media as an Advocacy Tool,” Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, Sep. 2011
        3. John D. Sutter, “Theater Shooting Unfolds in Real Time on Social Media,”, July 20, 2012
        4. Trevor Hughes and Carolyn Pesce, “Motive Sought in Deadly Shooting Rampage at Colorado Theater,”, July 21, 2012
        5. LexisNexis Risk Solutions, “Role of Social Media in Law Enforcement Significant and Growing,”, July 18, 2012
        6. Dan Evon, “NYPD Adding Twitter Tracking Unit to Police Force,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        7. Richard Dalke, “Social Media Case Study: The Stanley Cup Hockey Riots,”, June 27, 2011
        8. Global Post, “Vancouver Riots: The Shame and the Blame Spread Online,”, June 17, 2012
        9. National School Boards Association, “Creating and Connecting: Research and Guidelines on Online Social – and Educational – Networking,”, July 2007
        10. Sarah Kessler, “The Case for Social Media in Schools,”, Sep. 29, 2010
        11. Elizabeth Delmatoff, “How Social Media Transformed Our School Community,”, Apr. 2010
        12. Brian Solis, “People Use Social Networks to Connect with Friends and Family, Sometimes Brands,”, Sep. 13, 2011
        13. Megan Sponcil and Priscilla Gitimu, “Use of Social Media by College Students: Relationship to Communication and Self-concept,” Journal of Technology Research, 2012
        14. Common Sense Media, “Social Media, Social Life: How Teens View Their Digital Lives,”, 2012
        15. Bianca Bosker, “Fortune 500 List Boasts More Female CEOs Than Ever Before,”, May 7, 2012
        16. Huffington Post, “Social Media by Gender: Women Dominate Pinterest, Twitter, Men Dominate Reddit, YouTube (Infographic),”, June 21, 2012
        17. Laura Said-Moorhouse and Stina Backer, “Why Women in Business Are Flocking to Twitter Chat,”, Sep. 27, 2012
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        19. Jobvite, “The Essential Guide to Developing a Social Recruiting Strategy,”, Mar. 3, 2012
        20. HR Focus, “Certain Tools Are Helping HR Connect Swiftly with the Right Job Candidates,”, Sep. 1, 2012
        21. Jobvite, “2012 Social Job Seeker Survey,”, 2012
        22. Sharon Jayson, “‘Flocking’ Behavior Lands on Social Networking Sites,” USA TODAY, Sep. 27, 2009
        23. Morgan, “5 Ways Social Media Can Facilitate Offline Networking,”, May 8, 2012
        24. Annalisa Rodriguez, “Social Media Doesn’t Mean Social Isolation,”, Oct. 16, 2012
        25. Robert M. Bond, Christopher J. Farris, Jason J. Jones, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow, Jaime E. Settle, and James H. Fowler, “A 61-million-person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization,” Nature, Sep. 13, 2012
        26. Keith Hampton, Lauren Sessions Goulet, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell, “Social Networking Sites and Our Lives,”, June 16, 2011
        27. Lee Rainie, “Social Media and Voting,” Pew Internet,, Nov. 6, 2012
        28. Xiaolin Zhou, Barry Wellman, and Justine Yu, “Egypt: The First Internet Revolt?,” Peace Magazine, July-Sep. 2011
        29. Stuart Schaar, “Revolutionary Challenges in Tunisia and Egypt: Generations in Conflict,” New Politics, Summer 2011
        30. Todd Wasserman, “The Architect of #OccupyWallStreet Praises the Power of ‘Magical Hashtags,'”, Oct. 27, 2011
        31. Andy Nathan, “How Social Media Saved the Economy,”, June 14, 2011
        32. Quentin Hardy, “McKinsey Says Social Media Could Add $1.3 Million to the Economy,”, July 25, 2012
        33. Chris Crum, “Facebook Now Has 1.01 Billion Active Users, Brought in $1.26 Billion in Q3 Revenue,”, Oct. 24, 2012
        34. New York Times, “Twitter,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        35. Raquel Recuero, “Facebook, Public Education and Equity: A 13-year-old Fights for a ‘Better School,'”, Oct. 8, 2012
        36. Rheana Murray, “Families Find Photos Lost During Sandy,”, Nov. 27, 2012
        37. Peter Jordan, “We Are All Daniel Cui,”, Oct. 1, 2012
        38. Sarah Medina, “Daniel Cui, High School Goalie, Gets Support of Peers After Mean Prank (Video),”, Oct. 3, 2012
        39. University of Alabama at Birmingham, “Move Over Youngsters, Grandma’s on Facebook,”, Oct. 27, 2011
        40. Aylin Zafar, “Facebook for Centenarians: Senior Citizens Learn Social Media,”, Aug. 31, 2011
        41. Kathryn Zickuhr, “Generations 2010,”, Dec. 16, 2010
        42. Anxiety UK, “Anxiety UK Study Finds Technology Can Increase Anxiety,”, July 9, 2012
        43. Mary Wilks, “Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        44. Jewish Action, “The Social Media Revolution: What Does It Mean for Our Children?,”, Aug. 24, 2012
        45. Levi R. Baker and Debra L. Oswald, “Shyness and Online Social Networking Services,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Nov. 2010
        46. D. D. Luxton, J. D. June, and J. M. Fairall, “Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective,” American Journal of Public Health, May 2012
        47. World Health Organization, “Mixed Uptake of Social Media Among Public Health Specialists,”, Nov. 2011
        48. Charlotte Tucker, “Social Media, Texting Play New Role in Response to Disasters: Preparedness, Communication Targeted,”, May – June 2011
        49. 5 Boroughs Partnership, “Stamp Out Stigma,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        50. The Stigma Project, “Our Mission & Vision,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        51. The Economist, “Economist Debates: Social Networking,”, Feb. 13, 2012
        52. Wipe Out Homophobia, (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        53. Jenny Lawson, “The Bloggess,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        54. Ginny Graves, “Miracle on Facebook,” Good Housekeeping, July 2012
        55. Planet Hunters, “PH1: A Planet in a Four-star System,”, Oct. 15, 2012
        56. Anick Jesdanun, “The Best Crowdfunding Site for Hurricane Sandy Relief,”, Nov. 12, 2012
        57. Crowdwise, “About Us,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        58. Pencils of Promise, “Our Approach,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        59. Bigger Brains, “Get Noticed. Disseminate Your Research Better,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        60. Intuit Websites, “How Small Businesses Are Using Social Media,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        61. Tim Mullaney, “Social Media Is Reinventing How Business Is Done,”, May 6, 2012
        62. Harry Rollason, “Why Social Media Makes Customer Service Better,”, Sep. 29, 2012
        63. Meris Stansbury, “Ten Ways Schools Are Using Social Media Effectively,”, Oct. 21, 2011
        64., “Pros and Cons of Social Media in Education,”, 2012
        65. National School Boards Association, “Creating and Connecting: Research and Guidelines on Online Social – and Educational – Networking,”, July 2007
        66. Mark Blankenship, “How Social Media Can and Should Impact Higher Education,” Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, Mar. 2011
        67. Diane Cordell, “Skype and the Embedded Librarian,” Library Technology Reports, Feb. 2012
        68. Tim Childers, “From Social Networking to Academic Networking… A Paradigm Shift,” Internet@Schools, May-June 2011
        69. Edmodo, “About Edmodo,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2015)
        70. Greg Rollett, “How Musicians Are Using Social Media to Connect with Fans,”, Mar. 12, 2010
        71. Ben Sisario, “Digital Notes: 50,000 Are Owed Royalties, Agency Says,”, Aug. 15, 2012
        72. Ben Sisario, “The New Rise of a Summer Hit: Tweet It Maybe”, Aug. 21, 2012
        73. Desiree Adib, “Pop Star Justin Bieber Is on the Brink of Superstardom,”, Nov. 14, 2009
        74. Zack O’Malley Greenburg, “Justin Bieber, Venture Capitalist,” Forbes Asia Magazine, June 4, 2012
        75. National Endowment for the Arts, “NEA Chairman Rocco Landesman Announces New Report on How Americans Use Electronic Media to Participate in the Arts,”, June 25, 2010
        76. Kaplan Test Prep, “Kaplan Test Prep Survey: Percentage of College Admissions Officers Who Visit Applicants’ Social Networking Pages Continues to Grow — But Most Students Shrug,”, Nov. 20, 2014
        77. Dana Flavelle, “Worries Follow Rise of Facebook,”, May 4, 2007
        78. Tabitha Whissemore, “Students Connect Through Social Media Project,”, Nov. 28, 2011
        79. Olga R. Rodriguez, “Mexico Tweets Cause Massive Shootout Panic,”, Sep. 8, 2012
        80. Sam Laird, “Twitter Troll Who Posted Fake Sandy News Apologizes to Internet,”, Oct. 30, 2012
        81., “Facebook & Your Privacy: Who Sees the Data You Share on the Biggest Social Network,” Consumer Reports, June 2012
        82. Declan McCullagh, “Feds Snoop on Social-network Accounts Without Warrants,”, Sep. 27, 2012
        83. Sheryl Nance-Nash, “What Insurers Could Do with Your ‘Social Media Score,'”, Dec. 12, 2011
        84. Paul A. Kirschner and Aryn C. Karpinski, “Facebook and Academic Performance,” Computers in Human Behavior, Nov. 2010
        85. Jimmy Daly, “How Is Facebook Affecting College Students’ Grades [Infographic],”, July 2, 2012
        86. Leslie Lanir, “Digital Information Overwhelms and Distracts Students,”, Nov. 4, 2012
        87. David Gutierrez, “Facebook Is Making You Miserable, Scientists Find,”, Nov. 29, 2012
        88. Lee Rainie, Amanda Lenhart, and Aaron Smith, “The Tone of Life on Social Networking Sites,”, Feb. 9, 2012
        89. Victoria J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, and Donald F. Roberts, “Generation M2L Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds,”, Jan. 2010
        90. Mark Dolliver, “Social Networking: A Waste of Time?,”, Oct. 7, 2010
        91. Urs Gasser and John Palfrey, “Mastering Multitasking,” Educational Leadership, Mar. 2009
        92. David P. Willis, “Social Media Games Have Become Big Business,”, Feb. 24, 2012
        93. Chris Cuomo, “Rep. Anthony Weiner: ‘The Picture Was of Me and I Sent It,'”, June 6, 2011
        94. Raquel Recuero, “Social Media Discourse: Violence, Olympiads and Our Everyday Life,”, Aug. 23, 2012
        95. K. Wolfling, M. E. Beutel, and K. W. Muller, “Construction of a Standardized Clinical Interview to Assess Internet Addiction: First Findings Regarding the Usefulness of AICA-C,” Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 2012
        96. Tony Dokoupil, “Is the Onslaught Making Us Crazy?,” Newsweek, July 16, 2012
        97. David Derbyshire, “Social Websites Harm Children’s Brains: Chilling Warning to Parents from Top Neuroscientist,” Daily Mail, Feb. 24, 2009
        98. USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future, “Special Report: America at the Digital Turning Point,”, Jan, 2012
        99. Joann Pan, “Tweets at the Tables? More of Us Mix Social Media and Food,”, Feb. 29, 2012
        100. Barb Dybwad, “10% of Under 25s Think It’s OK to Text During Sex,”, May 5, 2010
        101. Matt McKinney, “Gangs Sometimes Fire First Shots Online,”, July 14, 2012
        102. Javelin Strategy & Research, “2012 Identity Fraud Industry Report: Social Media and Mobile Forming the New Fraud Frontier,”, 2012
        103. Alexandra Topping, “Social Networking Sites Fuelling Stalking, Report Warns,”, Feb. 1, 2012
        104. US Army, “Social Media Roundup: Dangers of Location-Based Social Networking and Geotagging,”, Feb. 22, 2012
        105. Daniel Hernandez, “Mexico: Decapitated Woman Mourned by Social Media Website,”, Sep. 25, 2011
        106., “Fourth Social Media Murder Reported in Nuevo Laredo,”, Nov. 10, 2011
        107. Nucleus Research, “Facebook: Measuring the Cost to Business of Social Networking,”, July 2009
        108. GFI Software, “Social Networking at Work: Thanks, but No Thanks?,”, June 3, 2011
        109. David Schepp, “Employees Admit Social Media Is a Waste of Their Time [Infographic],”, June 13, 2012
        110. F. Mishna, C. Cook, T. Gadalla, J. Daciuk, and S. Solomon, “Cyber Bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, July 2010
        111. Kathryn Anderson, “Workplace Aggression and Violence: Nurses and Midwives Say No,” Australian Nursing Journal, July 2011
        112. Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, and Kimberly J. Mitchell, “How Often Are Teens Arrested for Sexting? Data from a National Sample of Police Cases,” Pediatrics, Jan. 2012
        113. Nancy V. Gifford, “Sexting in the USA,” (accessed Dec. 6, 2012)
        114. Ben Weitsenkorn, “Private Porn Pics Aren’t Private for Long,”, Oct. 2012
        115. Stephen Marche, “Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?,” Atlantic Monthly, May 2012
        116. National Research Corporation, “1 in 5 Americans Use Social Media for Health Care Information,”, Feb. 28, 2011
        117. Megan Garber, “Health Blogger Could be Jailed for Giving Health Advice While Unlicensed,”, Apr. 24, 2012
        118. Jeffrey Benabio, “Why Twitter Is Bad for Your Health,”, Apr. 6, 2010
        119. Mia Moody, “New Media-Same Stereotypes: An Analysis of Social Media Depictions of President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama,” The Journal of New Media & Culture, Summer 2012
        120. Matthew Johnson, “Facing Online Hate: Preparing Youth to Deal with Hate on the Internet,” (accessed Dec. 6, 2012)
        121. Heidi Beirich and Laurie Wood, “Robert Killian’s Years of Posing as a Neo-Nazi Biker Cost Him Dearly,”, Fall 2012
        122. Ryan Owens and Chris Murphey, “Growing Number of ‘Project X’ Party Copycats Lead to Arrests Nationwide,”, Mar. 17, 2012
        123. NBC News, “Thousands Descend on Tiny Dutch Town after Facebook Invitation Goes Viral,”, Sep. 22, 2012
        124. CBS Local, “USC Study Examines Whether Social Networking Exacerbates Risky Behavior Among Teens,”, Apr. 2, 2012
        125. Howard Blume, “Students’ Online Photos of California Tests Delay Release of Scores,”, July 18, 2012
        126. Sal Bommarito, “New York City High School Cheating Scandal Sparks Fear That Facebook Can Be Used to Cheat,”, July 2012
        127. ExactTarget, “Digital Morning Report,”, 2010
        128. Jim Giles, “The Oracle of Facebook,” New Scientist, Apr. 28, 2012
        129. Lindsey Stiner, “Is Social Media to Blame for Inappropriate Student-Teacher Relationships?,”, Oct. 16, 2012
        130. Abbie Alford, “Social Media Fueling Teacher & Student Sexual Relationships,”, May 24, 2012
        131. I am Baker, “The Ugly Truth about Instagram,”, June 26, 2012
        132. Angela West, “What You Should Know about Pinterest and Copyright,”, Feb. 26, 2012
        133. Nancy Messieh, “How Not to Run an Instagram Account: Vogue Spain Caught Stealing from Well-Known Street Photographer,”, Apr. 22, 2012
        134. Michael J. Bugeja, “Facing the Facebook,”, Jan. 23. 2006
        135. Janet Kornblum and Mary Beth Marklein, “What You Say Online Could Haunt You,”, Mar. 8, 2006
        136. Matt Raymond, “How Tweet It Is!: Library Acquires Entire Twitter Archive,”, Apr. 14, 2010
        137. Shendl Tuchman, “Divorce and Social Networking Sites,”, Aug. 27, 2012
        138. Rob Waugh, “Beware the New Computer Virus Spreading Via Chat Messaging Window on Facebook,”, May 21, 2012
        139. Kyle Christie, “Going Viral: Using Social Media to Publicise Academic Research,”, Apr. 11, 2011
        140. Emily Johns, “Dangers Faced by Journalists Extend to Social Media Users,”, Fall 2011
        141. Martha Payne, “Martha Payne: Diary of a Girl Who Fed the Starving,”, Oct. 4, 2012
        142. Aaron Smith, Laurie Segall, and Stacy Cowley, “Facebook Reaches One Billion Users,”, Oct. 4, 2012
        143. Ashlee Vance, “Facebook: The Making of 1 Billion Users,”, Oct. 4, 2012
        144. Semiocast, “Brazil Becomes 2nd Country on Twitter, Japan 3rd Netherlands Most Active Country,”, Jan. 1, 2012
        145. Chenda Ngak, “Pinterest CEO Says Key to Success Was Marketing, Not Engineering,”, Oct. 22, 2012
        146. Sean Ludwig, “Pinterest Now the Third Most Popular Social Network After Facebook & Twitter,”, Apr. 5, 2012
        147. Nielsen Wire, “Social Media Report 2012: Social Media Comes of Age,”, Dec. 3, 2012
        148. Seer Interactive, “How Do They Make Money?,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        149. Tineka Smith, “Social Media Revenue Predicted to Reach $16.9bn in 2012,”, July 25, 2012
        150. Gartner, “Gartner Says Worldwide Social Media Revenue Forecast to Reach $16.9 Billion in 2012,”, July 25, 2012
        151. Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Internet’s Broader Role in Campaign 2008: Social Networking and Online Videos Take Off,”, Jan. 11, 2008
        152. Jeremiah Owyang, “Snapshot of Presidential Candidate Social Networking Stats: Nov 3, 2008,”, Nov. 3, 2008
        153. Vivek Kundra and Katie Stanton, “New Technologies and Participation,”, June 12, 2009
        154. White House Office of the Press Secretary, “Weekly Address: President Obama Announces Steps to Reform Government and Promote Fiscal Discipline,”, Apr. 25, 2009
        155. Audrey Hudson, “Exclusive: W.H. Collects Web Users’ Data Without Notice,”, Sep. 16, 2009
        156. Liz Gannes, “Twitter CEO Dick Costolo: We’re Not a Media Company. We’re in the Media Business.,”, Jan. 30, 2012
        157. Twitter Blog, “One Hundred Million Voices,”, Sep. 8, 2011
        158. Barack Obama, “Four More Years,”, Nov. 6, 2012
        159. Shea Bennett, “Revealed: Twitter’s 10 Most Retweeted Tweets of All Time,”, Sep. 27, 2012
        160. Tim Lister, “Tunisian Protests Fueled by Social Media Networks,”, Jan. 12, 2011
        161. Garry Blight, Sheila Pulham, and Paul Torpey, “Arab Spring: An Interactive Timeline of Middle East Protests,”, Jan. 5, 2012
        162. ENTRTNMNT, “Hillary Clinton Supports Twitter Use in Iran,”, June 18, 2009
        163. Michael Falcone, “In Iraq: To Twitter or Not to Twitter?,”, Feb. 9, 2009
        164. Aaron Gouveia, “Wasting Time at Work,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        165. Illinois General Assembly, “HB1314,”, Aug. 2009
        166. Internet Safety Technical Task Force, “Enhancing Child Safety & Online Technologies,”, Dec. 31, 2008
        167. Martin O’Malley, “Chapter 233: Labor and Employment – User Name and Password Privacy Protection and Exclusions,”, May 2, 2012
        168. Illinois General Assembly, “Bill Status of HB3782,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        169. Jerry Brown, “Today I Signed Two Bills to Prohibit Universities and Employers from Demanding Your Social Media Passwords,”, Sep. 27, 2012
        170. State of Delaware, “House Bill # 309 w/HA 1 + SA 2 + HA 2,”, July 20, 2012
        171. National Conference of State Legislatures, “Employer Access to Social Media Usernames and Passwords,” (accessed Dec. 5, 2012)
        172. Metro, “Instagram Attracts More Mobile Visitors Than Twitter for First Time,”, Sep. 28, 2012
        173. Beth Snyder Bulik, “Apparently That Text Can’t Wait — Not Even During Sex: Report Reveals Surprising News about Social Media and Its Grip on Our Lives,”, May 5, 2010
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        176. Josh Constine, “Facebook’s Growth Since IPO in 12 Big Numbers,”, May 17, 2013
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        180. DJ Saul, “3 Million Teens Leave Facebook in 3 Years: The 2014 Facebook Demographic Report,”, Jan. 15, 2014
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        186. Carol Robinson, “Student-teacher Sex: Are More Female Teachers Being Charged?,”, Mar. 4, 2014
        187. Associated Press, “Teacher-Student Sex Investigations Rising in Texas, 74 New Cases since Sept.,”, Mar. 16, 2015
        188. Merrill Hope, “41% Increase in Texas Teacher-Student Sexual Misconduct Cases,”, Mar. 19, 2015
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        193. BBC Trending “How the Paris Attacks Unfolded on Social Media,”, Nov. 17, 2015
        194. Nichole Tucker, “Study Shows That Twitter Broke the Ebola Outbreak Story Before Health Officials,”, June 3, 2015
        195. Sam Thielman, “Twitter Breaks News of the Boston Marathon Explosions: Injuries Reported, Photos Disseminated, Google Launches Person Finder,”, Apr. 15, 2013
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        197. Alex Murray “How Messaging and Social Apps Helped Convict Adam Johnson,”, Mar. 24, 2016
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        200. Amanda Lenhart, Aaron Smith, Monica Anderson, Maeve Duggan and Andrew Perrin, “Teens, Technology & Friendships: Video Games, Social Media and Mobile Phones Play a Role in How Teens Meet and Interact with Friends,”, Aug. 2015
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        203. Cooper Smith, “Here’s Why Instagram’s Demographics Are So Attractive to Brands,”, Aug. 17, 2014
        204. Douglas MacMillan, “Snapchat CEO: 70% of Users Are Women,”, Nov. 20, 2013
        205. JD Rucker, “Facebook Has More Female Users but Much More Male Journalists Covering It,”, Mar. 8, 2013
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        207. JobVite, “Americans Uncertain About the Future of Work, 2016 Jobvite Job Seeker Nation Shows,”, 2016
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        242. Richard Sandomir, “Curt Schilling, ESPN Analyst, Is Fired Over Offensive Social Media Post,”, Apr. 20, 2016
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        249. Callum Jones, “Man Jailed for Six Years After He Groomed Girls Online and Offered Money for Sex,”, Feb, 23, 2016
        250. Ray Surette, “Social Networks Set Off a ‘Performance Crime’ Spree,”, Jan. 30, 2016
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